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静电或在无空气的行星体间传送尘埃(双语)

http://www.smcyw.com时间:2016-08-23 10:07来源:中国IT观察网

  A NASA-funded research team, led by Mihaly Horanyi at the University of Colorado-Boulder (CU-Bolder), has conducted laboratory experiments to bring closure to a long-standing issue of electrostatic dust transport, explaining a variety of unusual phenomena on the surfaces of airless planetary bodies, including observations from the Apollo era to the recent Rosetta comet mission. The research being done at the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) was recently published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, and explains how dust may be transporting across vast regions above the lunar surface and rings of Saturn, without winds or flowing water.

  一项由NASA赞助,由科罗拉多大学波德分校(University of Colorado-Boulder,简称CU-Bolder)的Mihaly Horanyi领导的研究团队正在进行一项实验室试验,促使人们进一步了解一项由来已久的静电尘埃传送的议题,解释了在无空气的行星表面一系列不寻常的迹象,包括从阿波罗任务到最近的罗塞塔彗星任务的观测结果。这项在等离子、大气和宇宙尘埃建模研究所(Institute for Modeling Plasma,Atmospheres and Cosmic Dust,简称IMPACT)进行的研究最近被发表在《地球物理研究快报(Geophysical Research Letters)》上,并解释了尘埃可能以什么样的方式在月球表面以及土星环广袤的地区间传递,尽管这些区域并没有风或流动水。

  “Electrostatic dust processes have been hypothesized to explain these space observations. However, no theories until now were able to support these explanations,” said Mihaly Horanyi, principal investigator of IMPACT research team.

  科学家曾用静电除尘过程假想这些空间观测,但是,至今没有一项结论足以能够支持这些解释。”IMPACT研究团队的首席观察员Mihaly Horanyi说。

  The team recorded micron-sized dust particles jumping several centimeters high under ultraviolet (UV) radiation or exposure to plasmas. On the moon, these dust particles would have been lofted more than 10 cm above the lunar surface, leading researchers to conclude that the moon’s “horizon glow,” seen in images taken by Surveyor 5, 6, and 7 five decades ago, may have been caused in part by sunlight scattering in a cloud of electrostatically lofted dust particles.

  团队记录了微米级尘埃颗粒在紫外线照射下,或者暴露在脉冲中时,弹跳数厘米高的现象。在月球上,这些尘埃颗粒也许可以腾空10厘米以上,促使研究者得出结论——由勘察家5号、6号和7号(Surveyor 5, 6,7)在50年前拍摄的照片中观测到的月球“地平线闪光”——在某种程度上是由日光散射静电云,驱使尘埃颗粒腾空所造成的。

  Vaguely similar to the way dragging your feet across the carpet can generate an electric charge, the movement of electrons in the tiny spaces between dust particles can generate surprisingly large charges and forces, which can lift and move dust particles off the ground.

  这好比是将你的双脚放在地毯上来回摩擦可以产生静电,在尘埃颗粒之间的细微空间内,电子的运动可以产生惊人的巨大电荷与力,能够抬高并移动尘埃颗粒。

  In addition to single particles, clusters of dust were lofted, which showed that electrostatic processes may be responsible for the Rosetta detection of fluffy dust particles released from the surface of Comet 67P.

  除了单个颗粒以外,尘埃团也可以被抬高,这显示静电过程可能是从67P彗星表面释放的蓬松尘埃颗粒团被罗塞塔探测到的原因。

  These laboratory observations reveal that dusty surfaces can become smooth due to dust mobilization and could help explain the formation of the “dust ponds” like those seen on asteroid Eros and comet 67P, and the unexpectedly smooth surface on Saturn’s icy satellite Atlas.

  由实验室观测结果可见,布满灰尘的表面由于尘埃的运动可以变得光滑,同时可以帮助解释小行星伊洛斯(Eros)和67P彗星上看到的那些尘埃池塘的形成原因,以及土星的冰球卫星土卫十五(Atlas)那难以置信的光滑表面。

  For more information about SSERVI and the IMPACT research team, visit:

  欲知更多有关SSERVI 和IMPACT 研究团队的信息,请访问:www.sservi.nasa.gov (翻译:Linda 校对:mirai)

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